To be straightenedThe Lamentations 1:1-22ⅠThe beautiful and sad poetry
This is the last inning of genealogy of the prophet Jeremiah. As a conclusion, let's look the Lamentations which was given his name.
This Chapter 1 of the Lamentations begins "Oh" in the 新改訳、文語訳、口語訳, but, in the 新共同訳 Version, it begins "Why do?". This is the word of Aramaic original text of "Eha", but it has become a word that represents the sorrow "Oh, Why do", and it has become the title of this book, "the Lamentations". This has been called also often as a "the Jeremiah's Lamentations"; the author has been Jeremiah. It depends on the introduction of Septuaginta, it is saying thus, "And it happened, after Israel was taken captive and Ierousalem was laid waste, Ieremias sat weeping and gave this lament over Ierousalem and said;". However, the name of Josiah in Ⅱ Chronicles 35:25 which is its basis, "Then Jeremiah chanted a lament for Josiah. And all the male and female singers speak about Josiah in their lamentation to this say. And they made them an ordinance in Israel; behold, they are also written in the Lamentations.", his name is not in this "Eha (the Lamentations)" etc.; as there is a point to be many contradictions, most of bibliologists of criticizing of modern and contemporary are saying, it is not a thing of Jeremiah. However, because there is little difficulty to it, in fact, those who answer "do not know" seems to be many. Then, it would not be strange even if Jeremiah who made lament for king Josiah made "the Lamentations" particularly for Jerusalem. While piling up such a thought to this Lamentations, I want to see this final chapter.
In this Lamentations, the heart of poetry is full. Each chapter except Chapter 5, at the beginning of each section begins with alphabet Hebrew language, as the number of Aramaic alphabet, the all of them has been unified in verse 22. In Chapters 4, that nuances are missing from the Japanese translation unfortunately, but let's look at Verse 1-2 by 新共同訳 Version, because its beautiful nuance of poetry seems to come some. "Aleph Quomodo sedst sola Civitas plena populo. Facta est quasi vidua Domina gentium: Princeps provinciarum Facta est sub tributo. Beth Plorans ploravit in nocte, Et lacrymae ejus in maxillis ejus: Non est qui consoletur eam, Et facti sunt ei inimici." Was he attracted to the beautiful and sad poetry similar to the requiem? Thomas Tallis was an organist served four kings of the Tudor dynasty in 16th century of England; citing the subject of the work of Gregorian Chant recording, he has left the work putting a song in the Lamentations 1:1-5 which is called "the Lamentations of Jeremiah"; it is said that is his masterpiece. It is a very beautiful song. Here, followed the nuances of the original poem Aramaic Bible which was called Vulgata reason, the Bible of Latin itself was used.
Ⅱ Share a pain
It is not a good thing to use the time for the issue of author so much, I think, but, when we talk Jeremiah, it seems very important; please forgive a little more. Conventionally, discussion of alternative although came stacked whether the author is Jeremiah or not, but will not there be another possibility? Has it not been in a collaboration with Jeremiah and another person? I would like to think from that point.
If Jeremiah had been singing this poetry, when and where was it done? Chance would not be so many. Jerusalem already fell and was destroyed, and people fled the city and had become the exile to Babylon. Then, it was not when he was sitting in the courtyard of the guard of the royal palace, and he has been caught twice by Babylon soldiers and was routed, but it was difficult to think that such poetry was written in a meanwhile. Was it after going to Egypt? However, there is a sense of reality to these verses. If it was a time shortly after witnessing the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of the people, it may not be Egypt. It seems it was the time he was staying in Mizpah. However, I do not think that there was a time of so much in Mizpah. Although it is short, it is such poetry. Even if it had been born, it would have been in piecemeal. Eventually, it was passed to the hands of the editor of the Babylonian captivity, and a considerable hand was added; ... I imagine so.
In Jeremiah, we have seen already the place which has been a lot retouched and edited. Would this also had done by the hand of such an editor? Was he also the one who had witnessed the destruction of Jerusalem and the end of David dynasty? "Betrayal of lovers" (the Lamentations 1:2, Jeremiah 30:12-14), "Contamination of Jerusalem" (the Lamentations 1:8-9, Jeremiah 13:23), "Eye of the prophet is full of tears" (the Lamentations 1:16, Jeremiah 9:1), "Wound of the daughter of my people" (the Lamentations 2:11,3:48, Jeremiah 8:11), "I appeal to revenge to God" (the Lamentations 3:64-66, Jeremiah 11:20), "Crown fell" (the Lamentations 5:16, Jeremiah 13:18), etc.; the expressions which Jeremiah used can be seen in many places of the Lamentations. This is supported by Bible scholar who denies Jeremiah copyright theory. Was a true writing pen of Jeremiah from where to where? Even if it was less than half, or even if it was something of the note much less than that, but this editor followed it, and in order attributed it to Jeremiah, using the similar expression to Jeremiah in many places, he has put in here the sensitivity of Jeremiah. I hear that this Lamentations is talking about Jeremiah.
Ⅲ To be straightened
"The Lamentations (Eha)"; of course, Jeremiah, he was a reporter of this original poem, unknown author, this editor, and authors of Septuaginta, all of them told the prophet Jeremiah through this poem. I will go back to Verse 1:1. "How lonely sits the city that was full of people! She has become like a widow who was once great among the nation! She who was a princess has become a forced laborer!" There is no representation of queen in Jeremiah, but Jeremiah has likened to a dear daughter Israel often; and even if Jerusalem would have been a queen of countries, or princess (新共同訳 Version), it was not strange at all. At the point that was loved from the people of other countries, Jerusalem was queen definitely and was a princess. Jerusalem was lovely and the bright capital. For Jeremiah who was living in the poor village Anathoth, surely, Jerusalem, "people is flocking", would have been dazzling. Normally, the road to climb to Jerusalem from Anathoth is from northwest following the gate of Benjamin, but if you just go a little detour, it leads to Jericho Road go down from olive summit. The view of Jerusalem overlooking from the summit of the Olive mountain is truly stunning. When you go into the city, it is amazing hustle and bustle, but, still it is shining vividly. It is said such a scene is the same as now and a long time ago. Jesus and his disciples loved such Jerusalem. Jeremiah would have been so also. Its glorious Jerusalem was infringed by the armies of Babylon. For this editor who was a witness as same as Jeremiah, how would it have been tragic and a sad scene! Kobe, the town that I lived there, and loved it; but when that town was torn to shreds by that great earthquake and has been up in flames, it seemed bites myself, and my tears did not stop. This editor superimposed his pain with Jeremiah; I remember the sympathy to him.
Sitting in the garden of the royal palace, he is looking stunned going destroyed the city. Its state has been recorded in detail in Jeremiah; however, in such a case, in fact, would he be able to observe calmly for the events that are happening in front of his eyes and to record it? Let's read one more place! "So I say 'My strength has perished, and so has my hope from the Lord.'. Remember my affliction and my wandering, the wormwood and bitterness." (3:18-19) If he had been able to record such a thing, it seems likely after that he was settled in Mizpah. Even if his stay in Mizpah was less of three months, to record the destruction of Jerusalem and this Lamentation in the meantime, it would have been hardly enough time. It is no wonder that the Lamentations is fragmentary. However, this editor felt that the pain of Jeremiah, the sorrow, and also the wrath of God has been condensed there. The translators of Septuaginta, Jesus who mourned "Oh Jerusalem, Jerusalem" (Matthew 23:37), and also readers of now and future generations of Lamentations would have felt so... When we read this poem while remember the pain, we will be straightened in front of God.